The Earth is a moving planet. It revolves around the Sun creating the year, or one full rotation, and as it revolves it also
spins so that the light of the sun falls upon different parts of the planet at different times creating night and day.
Because the axis of the planet is at a tilt, the energy of the Sun strikes the Earth more intensely at times than others. To
someone upon the planet, this resulting effect is felt as seasonal change. So not only do we get the year, and night and
day, we get summer and winter or for the ancients, the season of bounty and the season of want.
The earth moves and we experience this movement as time. We witness it each day as the sun rises to travel across the
sky before it descends casting the world into darkness. We feel it in the seasons as the earth both circles the sun and
turns upon its axis. One full rotation and another year has gone. The earth moves and time is created. The ancients noted
this motion and how twice a year there were two days in which the hours of light and the hours of darkness where equal.
They calculated that these days occurred every six months, first around June 21 then again around December 22. They
named these days equinoxes or 'equal night'. Between these equinoxes they observed the hours of daylight grew and
then diminished so that between each equinox was the longest, and then the shortest day. These events are the
solstices. The equinoxes and solstices divide the natural year into fourths.
To the ancients time was circular rather than linear. They saw the year, marked with its seasonal change, as a great
tuning wheel that shifted the world from light to darkness, spring to summer, fall, then winter, the world from bounty to
want. They created calendars set by the waxing and waning of the moon, divided into quarter by the solstices and
equinoxes. The Wheel of the Year is one such calendar. It divides the year into four sections, each beginning with a
quarter day (spring equinox, summer solstice, fall equinox, winter solstice). Each of these sections is further divided,
creating four cross-quarter days or the midpoint between a solstice and equinox (Imbolc, Beltane, Lughnasadh, and
Samhain) to reflect the natural procession of the seasons.
The Wheel of the Year
December 20 to 21 Yule or The Winter solstice Quarter day, Solar festival, Male
This solstice marks the birth of the Sun child as on this darkest night of winter, light returns to the world. It was
customary to rise just before dawn and light candle to welcome the return of light to the world for on this morning after
the year's longest night, the cold relinquishes its reign, as from day forward, the hours of daylight increase. Yuletide is a
time for new beginnings. It is a time to gather together, to feast and renew relationships, to strengthen the bonds of
friendship and family ties. This is also the time to forgive, a time to abandon the things that did not serve, to make
peace with the troubles of the past and to look ahead with hope, each of us aspiring to be better, as we pay homage to
the cycle of life. It is important that we each join the celebration, taking time to gather with family and friends and to
feast for it is at this time that relationships are renewed, that memories are made, that the bonds of friendship and
family ties are strengthened and we find that joining the celebration holds a magic for us all.
Click Here for more about Yule
February 2 Imbolc or 'in the belly' also known as Candlemas - Cross-quarter day, Earth festival, Female, 1st Fire festival
This is the first of the fire festivals. Not only are the daylight hours noticeably growing longer but now nature is waking as
many of the animals are pregnant and their udder are filling with milk marking the return of nature's bounty and the end
of a long dark winter.
March 20 or 21 Ostara or the Spring Equinox or Vernal - Quarter day, Solar festival, Male
The equinox is when the hours of daylight and darkness are equal. This is the second spring festival, celebrating the
return of fertility to the land as natures begins to wake. In the past this was a spring planting festival. Its symbol is an
May 1 Beltane or 'Beautiful Flame' also known as May Day - Cross-quarter day, Earth festival, Female, 2nd Fire festival
Beltane honors life, birth, and fruitfulness and in the past was a great fire festival celebrating the fertility of nature. This
festival is about intense life energy, vitality, and creation.
June 21 Litha or The Summer Solstice - Quarter day, Solar festival, Male
longest daylight and shortest nights, but it also marks when this starts to reverse and daylight decreases. This solstice
celebrates the height of summer.
Aug 1 Lughnasadh 'Loafmass' or Lammas - Cross-quarter day, Earth festival, Female, third Fire festival
The first of the three autumn harvest festivals in the season of ripening. It is a time to take note of the aubundance and
give thanks for all that we have in our lives. In the past when village life revolved around the growing of the grain, this
was the day the first sheaves of grain were brought in from the field and baked into the first loafs from the new grain
crop. These loaves were blessed, broken into quarters, and left to guard the grain that had been gathered. Lammas is a
time of graditude, a time of transformation, of rebirth, and new beginnings.
Sept 21–22 Mabon or the Fall Equinox - Quarter day, Solar festival, Male
On this day, when the hours of light and the hour of darkness are equal, we give thanks for the fruits of the earth during
this second harvest festival.
Oct 31 Samhain or "Summer's End" also known as Halloween - Cross-quarter day, Earth, Female, forth Fire festival and
final harvest festival
This marks the final harvest and the beginning of the darker half of the year. Samhain was both the end and the
beginning of the Celtic Year. It was a fire festival known for misrule, much like Saturnalia and associated with death, for
this was not only the death of the year but the time when the surplus livestock were butcherd for winter’s meat. Samhain
is known as a time when both faerie and spirit activity increase as on this night the veil between this worlds grows thin
so that the dead may return to warm themselves at the hearths of the living, and some of the living slip through
doorways to visit the sidhe in the Otherworld. On this night we honor those who died in the year before. It is a time to
venerate our ancestors and purge ourselves of things we are better off without. Samhain is a time of purifcation as we
give up things we do not need, replacing bad habits with good ones.